​Kepler Strategies LLC

NATO Cyberspace Capability: A Strategic and Operational Evolution

Jeffrey Caton

Strategic Studies Institute (June 2016)


This monograph examines the past and current state of cyberspace defense efforts in NATO to assess the appropriateness and sufficiency to address anticipated threats to member countries, including the United States. The analysis focuses on the recent history of cyberspace defense efforts in NATO and how changes in strategy and policy of NATO writ large embrace the emerging nature of cyberspace for military forces as well as other elements of power. It first examines the recent evolution of strategic foundations of NATO cyber activities, policies, and governance as they evolved over the past 13 years. Next, it outlines the major NATO cyber defense mission areas, which include NATO network protection, shared situational awareness in cyberspace, critical infrastructure protection, counter-terrorism, support to member country cyber capability development, and response to crises related to cyberspace. Finally, it discusses several key issues for the new Enhanced Cyber Defence Policy that affirms the role that NATO cyber defense contributes to the mission of collective defense and embraces the notion that a cyber attack may lead to the invocation of Article 5 actions for the Alliance.

Evaluation of the 2015 DoD Cyber Strategy: Mild Progress in a Complex and Dynamic Military Domain

Jeffrey Caton

Strategic Studies Institute (November, 2017)


In 2011, the Department of Defense (DoD) released its Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace, which officially recognized cyberspace as an operational domain akin to the traditional military domains of land, sea, air, and space. This monograph examines the 2015 DoD Cyber Strategy to evaluate how well its five strategic goals and associated implementation objectives define an actionable strategy to achieve three primary missions in cyberspace: defend the DoD network, defend the United States and its interests, and develop cyber capabilities to support military operations. This monograph focuses on events and documents from the period of about 1 year before and 1 year after the 2015 strategy was released. This allows sufficient time to examine the key policies and guidance that influenced the development of the strategy as well as follow-on activities for the impacts from the strategy.

Activities and Publication

The Land, Space, and Cyberspace Nexus: Evolution of the Oldest Military Operations in the Newest Military Domains

Jeffrey Caton

Strategic Studies Institute (March 2018)


This monograph examines the relationships among these domains and how they apply to U.S. Army and joint warfighting. It concentrates on the central question: How are U.S. military operations in the newest domains of space and cyberspace being integrated with operations in the traditional domain of land? This inquiry is divided into three major sections: (1) Existing Doctrine--the current state of joint and U.S. Army doctrinal development for each of the domains of land, space, and cyberspace (as of October 2016); (2) Operations in Multiple Domains--the concept of cross-domain synergy and its ability to enhance globally integrated operations; and (3) Future Operations--probable future operating environments as well as the resulting implications for U.S. Army and joint force development. It also identifies operational challenges that cut across all domains.

Autonomous Weapon Systems: A Brief Survey of Developmental, Operational, Legal, and Ethical Issues

Jeffrey Caton

Strategic Studies Institute (December, 2015)


What does the Department of Defense hope to gain from the use of autonomous weapon systems (AWS)? This Letort Paper explores a diverse set of complex issues related to the developmental, operational, legal, and ethical aspects of AWS. It explores the recent history of the development and integration of autonomous and semi-autonomous systems into traditional military operations. It examines anticipated expansion of these roles in the near future as well as outlines international efforts to provide a context for the use of the systems by the United States. As these topics are well-documented in many sources, this Paper serves as a primer for current and future AWS operations to provide senior policymakers, decisionmakers, military leaders, and their respective staffs an overall appreciation of existing capabilities and the challenges, opportunities, and risks associated with the use of AWS across the range of military operations. Emphasis is added to missions and systems that include the use of deadly force.

Aerospace - Cyberspace - National Security


2017 Publications under editing for publication:


​Impacts of Anti-Access/Area Denial Measures on Space Systems: Issues and Implications for Army and Joint Forces

What are ways for the Army to assure the success of its space-dependent warfighting functions in an A2/AD environment where space systems are degraded for significant periods of time?


​​Implications of Service Cyberspace Component Commands for Army Cyberspace Operations

The emerging DoD Cyber Mission Force includes forces from all military Services that may reflect artifacts in their organization, training, and operation that are influenced by Service cultures. Such diversity offers challenges and opportunities for senior leaders and policy makers entrusted with creating a joint force that can operate efficiently and effectively in and through cyberspace


The Army Role in Achieving Deterrence in Cyberspace

​To be effective, deterrence in cyberspace must be coordinated with ongoing deterrence efforts in the physical realm, especially those of near-peers impacting critical global regions such as China in Asia-Pacific and Russia in Europe. What are the Army's roles?


​Examining the Roles of Army Reserve Component Forces in Military Cyberspace Operations

​ What capabilities can reserve component forces bring to Department of Defense (DoD) cyberspace forces? What opportunities and challenges surround the integration of these forces into a still-evolving joint cyberspace force? What are the expectations for cyber forces that serve in a militia capacity?​


[ Currently adding activities & publications from 2012-2015. Please check back again. ]